Untitled-1.png
  • black-back-closed-envelope-shape
  • White Instagram Icon
  • White Facebook Icon
  • White LinkedIn Icon

Copyright ©2019 by Sanomics Limited. All rights reserved.

Background knowledge

cancer and genetics

3 MOST COMMON CANCERS IN HONG KONG

Statistics from Hong Kong Cancer Registry, Hospital Authority. Last updated: Oct 2018

Colorectal Cancer

In 2016

3,918 new cases

1,628 deaths 

Breast Cancer

In 2016

2,595 new cases

465 deaths 

Lung Cancer

In 2016

4,233 new cases

3,531 deaths 

GENETIC CHANGES AND CANCER

 Proto-Oncogene

stimulates cell

division and survival

Mutation 

Tumor-suppressor gene

inhibits and suppresses

cell division

Mutated proto-oncogene 

becomes oncogene

Mutated tumor-

suppressor gene

Inhibits cell death

Stimulates cell growth

Cells grow uncontrollably

THE 4 TYPES OF MUTATION

Insertion and deletion of 1kb in length of nucleotides into genomic data

SNV is a variation in a single nucleotide. It could also be explained as a point mutations, that result from errors during DNA replication or other types of damage to DNA

There are 4 types: 

  1. Synonymous 

  2. Non Synonymous 

  3. Copy Number Variant 

  4. Translocation 

Increase in the number of copies of a gene. 

This could lead to an increase in RNA and proteins.  

Hybrid gene formed from 2 previously separated gene. This occurs as a result of translocation/deletion/inversion. 

sNV

Single nucleotide variants

INDELS

Amplification

FUSION

PRECISION MEDICINE

Precision medicine is an approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes an individual's variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle into consideration.

‚Äč

This allows doctors and researchers to accurately predict  the type of treatment and prevention strategies that would yield greatest effect for their patients.

 

The same type of cancer could be due to a completely different gene mutation in different patients. Through precision medicine, the analytical approach to determine the type of gene mutations can lead to targeted therapies.